FEUDAL/Feudalism/Feudalize  governing system of nobility in medieval Europe, relating to a fief
      FEUD   abbreviation for Feudal
 FEUDAL CHARGES/Aids  vassal payment to lord for his going on Crusade,sons knighting
      FEUDALITY  regime or feudal system  
      FEUDAL LEVY   army obligation a lord needs to field a number of knights and men-at-arms for 40 days  service in the kings army in exchange for land.  A liegeman would go to the royal castle with necessary  warhorse, armament and attendants specified by contract.
      FEUDAL PYRAMID    king over sub-tenants
      FEUDAL REGIME  holding to a feudal system
      FEUDAL SERVICE   vassal holding land from a lord in exchange for military service
      FEUDAL SYSTEM  from lord to vassal, homage and fealty, and enfeoffment
      ANCIENT DEMESNE  land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book. 
      CUSTOMAL    written collection of a manor’s customs
      DEMESNE   manor land held by free or villein tenants but directly cultivated for the lord by an agent
      MESSUAGE    portion of land occupied as a site for a swelling or house and all appurtenances
     AVOWRY   lord of the manor
LIEGE  feudal lord over a vassal
     LORD   feudal superior of vassal, always a manorial Lord
     LORDSHIP  loyalty and support joining a vassal to his noble lord 
           BOLD-GAETAL     lords estate
     SAKE and SOKE  right of jurisdiction claimed by some manorial lords
     SOKELAND  Danelaw for land to be property of occupying peasants, rather than the lord
     SUZERAIN   feudal Over Lord
          SUZERAINTY   control of one state over another
FEUDARE   Latin ‘feudatorius’   invest with feudal property 
     TENURE  holding property as a tenant
     TENANT /Tenant Farmer   works land in exchange for Lords protection
     TENANT-in-CHIEF   one holding land directly from King.  All Earls were   
           MESNE TENANT  vassal of a Tenant-in-Chief
           UNDER-TENANT  tenant holding land from lord or tenant-in-chief
     VASSAL   feudal homage in exchange for a Lord’s grant of land, protection  
     VASSALAGE  the condition of being someone’s subordinate
           SUBINFEUDINATION   vassal holder of land/fief grants parts to sub-vassals, making them his own vassals.
      VILLEIN/Feudal Serf/Bondage  freeman owing services to Lord for land
            LAND TENURE  feudal tenure which a villein held land

FIEFDOM   estate or domain of a feudal lord
     INLAND/Demesne land   center of a Lords estate retained instead of given out
FIEF/Feoff/Fiefdom    land producing income, controlled by a feudal lord
FIEFDOM   lord’s estate or manor
  BAILIFF/BAILIE/BAILLEE   land steward acting on behalf of the landowner or landlord
  CHAMBERLAIN   household official in charge of a lord's chamber. 
  CHAPLAIN/Chancellor    priest or monk in charge of the chapel 
  HAYWARD   manorial official in charge of haymaking or harvest times
  REEVE/Grave/Grieve   officer of lord of manor oversees all feudal obligations. 
  SERGEANT servant accompanying lord to battle, or horseman of low status used
  as light cavalry.
       SERGEANTY  feudal tenure service to a lord, lower than a knight
FORFEITURE   right of lord to recover fief when vassal fails his obligations
FREEHOLD  estate held without any feudal obligation
FIEFDOMS MILITARY  lord payment of money/provisions for fealty and service in his army
CAVALCADE/Chevauchee    duty to accompany or provide escort to a lord 
      CASTLE/MANOR GUARD   obligation to serve in garrison for forty days or kings army
      HOUSEHOLD KNIGHTS  entourage following lord into war/tournaments, paid in food and housing.  
      MAN-AT-ARMS    soldier holding his land, generally 60-120 acres, specifically in exchange
for military service. Sometimes called a Yeoman. 
      MARSHAL   household official in charge of the stables, later a royal officer.
FIEF-RENTE/Payments/Taxes  annual money due a liege lord for use of his land
      AID  vassal’s special obligation to provide money for his lord’s ransom, marriage of a
 daughter, knighting of his son, or for going on Crusade.
      BANALITIES  fees feudal lord imposed on serfs to use his mill/oven/wine press
      CHEVAGE  annual poll tax needed to live outside a manor
      DRINCLEAN  tenants payment due a lord for ale
      ENTRY FEE  tenant payment for admission to a holding
      FORMARRIAGE/MERCHET  serfs payment to lord when daughter marries to another manor
      FOREST LAW  right to hunt on land set aside for a Lord’s hunting
      GAVELSEED  grain/corn paid by peasants to their lord for land rent
      GERSUMA    fine to lord for permission to take possession of tenement
      HENNESILVER   payment of hens to lord
      HERIOT   tribute/gift, usually prized animal/possession given by tenant/villein’s family to
 his lord at the tenant’s death, forgiven if he died in battle 
      HEUSHIRE  house rent
      HEWETHRY  rent of sheep
      HOST   military service owed a Lord
      INCIDENTS  payments/services rendered by vassal in addition to regular rent and feudal
 services including an inheritance tax (relief) and a death duty (heriot)
      INFANGENTHEF  power of a lord to inflict capital punishment on his tenants
      JUS PRIMAE NOCTIS/First Night   right of a lord to sleep with bride of a serf on the first
 night of their marriage, custom could be avoided by the payment of a fine
      LEASE FOR THREE LIVES   lease of land for life to holder, his son or wife, and a grandson
      MANUMISSION  act by which a lord frees a serf
      MATSILVER   payment of malt to lord
      MERCHET   payment due a Lord when a Villein sells cattle,  sends son to school outside the manor, or gave his daughter in marriage
      MILLAGE/Multure   payment to lord to use mill to grind corn
      PANNAGE  payment to let pigs forage in the lords woods
      PASTURAGE/Pascuarium  payment of Sor-penny for pasturing livestock
      PINFOLD/Punfold   lords pound for stray animals
      STALLAGE   payment for permission to have a stall in a market or fair
      STINTING   limiting rights to pasture
      TAILLE       levied by the king or any lord upon his subjects
      THELONY     toll levied on imports and exports
      VILLEINS     serf/peasant holding land tenure to pay socage to a Lord
      WETHERSILVER/Weddersilver     payment of a sheep or goats to a lords flock
      WINESILVER    payment for personal service in lords vineyard
      BENEFICE   a grant by a lord usually of land
      BURAGAGE   12th c. English tenure holding land for king/lord for fixed rent
      BURGAGE TENURE  freeholder pays rent money instead of military services
      BURGESS  holder of land 
      CORVEE dues paid by a serf in return for use of his lord's land
      ESCHEAT  right of lord to take back lands held by vassal, or the holding of a serfs land, should he either die
 without lawful heirs or suffer outlawry
      EXTENTS    formal declaration and valuation of the various lands of a manor, as pertaining to the  services, rents, profits, etc. of the same. 
      GAVELKIND    form of land-tenure whereby a man's property was divided among his sons 
      HONOR    great estate of a tenant-in-chief
      LEET     a subdivision of land in Kent equivalent to a hundred

FEUDAL LANMD HOLDERS  anyone granted or given land to work by king or lord
      BARON   nobility of England as tenant-in-chief, holding lands directly given by the king
      BORDAR     small land holder
      FREE TENEMENT/Tenures   a fief, usually a knight’s, urban burgages, and the holdings of
  free peasants
      MESSOR    one officially appointed to oversee a manors reapers 
      SOCAGE TENURE   a freeman owing his lord money rent
      SOKEMEN  free tenants under manor jurisdiction, owing no service to lord
      VASSAL    free man holding land/fief from a lord to whom he paid homage and swore fealty which   made him obligated to military and other services. 
      VILLEING    the wealthiest non-free man bound to the land and holding 20-40 acres of land, owing   military and other services to his lord.  
      YARDLAND  peasant holding the common fields and rights  of 25-30 acres of arable land with appurtenant meadow, pasture.
FEUDAL TENURE   a villein who holds land that produces an income
      ANILEPMAN    smallholder, or tenant of the manor
      BARON    tenant-in-chief who held lands
      BASTARD FEUDALISM  a lord rewards a vassal with money other than land
      BORDAR   small land holder, less than a Villein, but more than a cottar
      BURGESS  holder of land or house within a borough
      CROFTER   tenant of a small piece of land
      SMALL HOLDER  middle class peasant farming more land than cottager
      VASSAL  holding land for a superior
            LIEGEMAN    vassal who swore homage to his liege lord
           YEOMAN   one qualified by possessing free land of certain value to serve on juries, vote
 for the knight of the shire, etc.           

SWORN/OATH of FEALTY    a loyalty vow sworn to a lord
      ENEOFF   take one into vassalage to render a service in return for fee/fief
      EWAGE     obligation of military service to a lord
      ENFEOFFMENT  held in return for feudal service
      FEOFFMENT     act of granting fief to vassal by giving dirt clod as symbolic gesture.
      SCUTAGE/Escuage    11th c. Latin for shield,  money paid to a feudal Lord in  exchange for not serving military time. By 12th c. practice had become a fixed sum allowing the king to dispense with his Barons and  hire mercenaries.  
      SERVITUM  DEBITUM  40 day military service owed by a Vassal/Knight to his lord or king.