FEUDAL/Feudalism/Feudalize governing system of nobility in medieval Europe, relating to a fief
FEUD abbreviation for Feudal
FEUDAL CHARGES/Aids vassal payment to lord for his going on Crusade,sons knighting
FEUDALITY regime or feudal system
FEUDAL LEVY army obligation a lord needs to field a number of knights and men-at-arms for 40 days service in the kings army in exchange for land. A liegeman would go to the royal castle with necessary warhorse, armament and attendants specified by contract.
FEUDAL PYRAMID king over sub-tenants
FEUDAL REGIME holding to a feudal system
FEUDAL SERVICE vassal holding land from a lord in exchange for military service
FEUDAL SYSTEM from lord to vassal, homage and fealty, and enfeoffment
ANCIENT DEMESNE land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book.
CUSTOMAL written collection of a manor’s customs
DEMESNE manor land held by free or villein tenants but directly cultivated for the lord by an agent
MESSUAGE portion of land occupied as a site for a swelling or house and all appurtenances
AVOWRY lord of the manor
LIEGE feudal lord over a vassal
LORD feudal superior of vassal, always a manorial Lord
LORDSHIP loyalty and support joining a vassal to his noble lord
BOLD-GAETAL lords estate
SAKE and SOKE right of jurisdiction claimed by some manorial lords
SOKELAND Danelaw for land to be property of occupying peasants, rather than the lord
SUZERAIN feudal Over Lord
SUZERAINTY control of one state over another
FEUDARE Latin ‘feudatorius’ invest with feudal property
TENURE holding property as a tenant
TENANT /Tenant Farmer works land in exchange for Lords protection
TENANT-in-CHIEF one holding land directly from King. All Earls were
MESNE TENANT vassal of a Tenant-in-Chief
UNDER-TENANT tenant holding land from lord or tenant-in-chief
VASSAL feudal homage in exchange for a Lord’s grant of land, protection
VASSALAGE the condition of being someone’s subordinate
SUBINFEUDINATION vassal holder of land/fief grants parts to sub-vassals, making them his own vassals.
VILLEIN/Feudal Serf/Bondage freeman owing services to Lord for land
LAND TENURE feudal tenure which a villein held land
FIEFDOM estate or domain of a feudal lord
INLAND/Demesne land center of a Lords estate retained instead of given out
FIEF/Feoff/Fiefdom land producing income, controlled by a feudal lord
FIEFDOM lord’s estate or manor
BAILIFF/BAILIE/BAILLEE land steward acting on behalf of the landowner or landlord
CHAMBERLAIN household official in charge of a lord's chamber.
CHAPLAIN/Chancellor priest or monk in charge of the chapel
HAYWARD manorial official in charge of haymaking or harvest times
REEVE/Grave/Grieve officer of lord of manor oversees all feudal obligations.
SERGEANT servant accompanying lord to battle, or horseman of low status used
as light cavalry.
SERGEANTY feudal tenure service to a lord, lower than a knight
FORFEITURE right of lord to recover fief when vassal fails his obligations
FREEHOLD estate held without any feudal obligation
FIEFDOMS MILITARY lord payment of money/provisions for fealty and service in his army
CAVALCADE/Chevauchee duty to accompany or provide escort to a lord
CASTLE/MANOR GUARD obligation to serve in garrison for forty days or kings army
HOUSEHOLD KNIGHTS entourage following lord into war/tournaments, paid in food and housing.
MAN-AT-ARMS soldier holding his land, generally 60-120 acres, specifically in exchange
for military service. Sometimes called a Yeoman.
MARSHAL household official in charge of the stables, later a royal officer.
FIEF-RENTE/Payments/Taxes annual money due a liege lord for use of his land
AID vassal’s special obligation to provide money for his lord’s ransom, marriage of a
daughter, knighting of his son, or for going on Crusade.
BANALITIES fees feudal lord imposed on serfs to use his mill/oven/wine press
CHEVAGE annual poll tax needed to live outside a manor
DRINCLEAN tenants payment due a lord for ale
ENTRY FEE tenant payment for admission to a holding
FORMARRIAGE/MERCHET serfs payment to lord when daughter marries to another manor
FOREST LAW right to hunt on land set aside for a Lord’s hunting
GAVELSEED grain/corn paid by peasants to their lord for land rent
GERSUMA fine to lord for permission to take possession of tenement
HENNESILVER payment of hens to lord
HERIOT tribute/gift, usually prized animal/possession given by tenant/villein’s family to
his lord at the tenant’s death, forgiven if he died in battle
HEUSHIRE house rent
HEWETHRY rent of sheep
HOST military service owed a Lord
INCIDENTS payments/services rendered by vassal in addition to regular rent and feudal
services including an inheritance tax (relief) and a death duty (heriot)
INFANGENTHEF power of a lord to inflict capital punishment on his tenants
JUS PRIMAE NOCTIS/First Night right of a lord to sleep with bride of a serf on the first
night of their marriage, custom could be avoided by the payment of a fine
LEASE FOR THREE LIVES lease of land for life to holder, his son or wife, and a grandson
MANUMISSION act by which a lord frees a serf
MATSILVER payment of malt to lord
MERCHET payment due a Lord when a Villein sells cattle, sends son to school outside the manor, or gave his daughter in marriage
MILLAGE/Multure payment to lord to use mill to grind corn
PANNAGE payment to let pigs forage in the lords woods
PASTURAGE/Pascuarium payment of Sor-penny for pasturing livestock
PINFOLD/Punfold lords pound for stray animals
STALLAGE payment for permission to have a stall in a market or fair
STINTING limiting rights to pasture
TAILLE levied by the king or any lord upon his subjects
THELONY toll levied on imports and exports
VILLEINS serf/peasant holding land tenure to pay socage to a Lord
WETHERSILVER/Weddersilver payment of a sheep or goats to a lords flock
WINESILVER payment for personal service in lords vineyard
BENEFICE a grant by a lord usually of land
BURAGAGE 12th c. English tenure holding land for king/lord for fixed rent
BURGAGE TENURE freeholder pays rent money instead of military services
BURGESS holder of land
CORVEE dues paid by a serf in return for use of his lord's land
ESCHEAT right of lord to take back lands held by vassal, or the holding of a serfs land, should he either die
without lawful heirs or suffer outlawry
EXTENTS formal declaration and valuation of the various lands of a manor, as pertaining to the services, rents, profits, etc. of the same.
GAVELKIND form of land-tenure whereby a man's property was divided among his sons
HONOR great estate of a tenant-in-chief
LEET a subdivision of land in Kent equivalent to a hundred
FEUDAL LANMD HOLDERS anyone granted or given land to work by king or lord
BARON nobility of England as tenant-in-chief, holding lands directly given by the king
BORDAR small land holder
FREE TENEMENT/Tenures a fief, usually a knight’s, urban burgages, and the holdings of
MESSOR one officially appointed to oversee a manors reapers
SOCAGE TENURE a freeman owing his lord money rent
SOKEMEN free tenants under manor jurisdiction, owing no service to lord
VASSAL free man holding land/fief from a lord to whom he paid homage and swore fealty which made him obligated to military and other services.
VILLEING the wealthiest non-free man bound to the land and holding 20-40 acres of land, owing military and other services to his lord.
YARDLAND peasant holding the common fields and rights of 25-30 acres of arable land with appurtenant meadow, pasture.
FEUDAL TENURE a villein who holds land that produces an income
ANILEPMAN smallholder, or tenant of the manor
BARON tenant-in-chief who held lands
BASTARD FEUDALISM a lord rewards a vassal with money other than land
BORDAR small land holder, less than a Villein, but more than a cottar
BURGESS holder of land or house within a borough
CROFTER tenant of a small piece of land
SMALL HOLDER middle class peasant farming more land than cottager
VASSAL holding land for a superior
LIEGEMAN vassal who swore homage to his liege lord
YEOMAN one qualified by possessing free land of certain value to serve on juries, vote
for the knight of the shire, etc.
SWORN/OATH of FEALTY a loyalty vow sworn to a lord
ENEOFF take one into vassalage to render a service in return for fee/fief
EWAGE obligation of military service to a lord
ENFEOFFMENT held in return for feudal service
FEOFFMENT act of granting fief to vassal by giving dirt clod as symbolic gesture.
SCUTAGE/Escuage 11th c. Latin for shield, money paid to a feudal Lord in exchange for not serving military time. By 12th c. practice had become a fixed sum allowing the king to dispense with his Barons and hire mercenaries.
SERVITUM DEBITUM 40 day military service owed by a Vassal/Knight to his lord or king.